One pathway where radiative forcing peaks at approximately 3 W m-2 before 2100 and then declines. Source:

RCP4.5 and RCP6.0

Two intermediate stabilization pathways in which radiative forcing is stabilized at approximately 4.5 W m-2 and 6.0 W m-2 after 2100. Source:


One high pathway for which radiative forcing reaches greater than 8.5 W m-2 by 2100 and continues to rise for some amount of time. Source:

Rootzone soil moisture

Water that is available in those parts of the soil from which plant roots can extract water, thereby being an important limiting factor constraining crop productivity. Source:


The flow of water over the surface or through the subsurface, which typically originates from the part of liquid precipitation and/or snow/ice melt that does not evaporate or refreeze, and is not transpired. Source: